Disruption drives business failure and success. Most people think technology drives disruption, but technology merely enables disruption — changing customer needs cause it. This is especially obvious in e-commerce. Amazon’s rapid growth and increased customer base got retailers worried. Leaders thought expanding their online presence would bring growth back — but they were wrong. Consider Walmart. It changed the retail landscape in the 1990s — yet from 2012 to 2016, sales growth and profits steadily declined.